All Lophophora species are extremely slow growing, often taking up to thirty years to reach flowering age in the wild (about the size of a golf ball, not including its root). Human cultivated specimens grow considerably faster, usually taking from six to ten years to go from seedling to mature flowering adult. Origin and Habitat: Grows in an area that stretches from from the Chihuahuan Desert to the South Texas Plains, on either side of the middle and lower Rio Grande River, southward to the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas. Extensive stands of peyote occur on the low, rocky hills in Starr, Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg counties of southern Texas. Altitude: It grows from 100 up to 1900 metres above sea level. Habitat and Ecology: This geophytic, button-like cactus occurs in xerophyllous scrub including Tamaulipan thorn scrub isolated or in groups usually in calcareous deserts, on rocky slopes, or in dried river beds. The species is very abundant in habitat with large number of mature individuals however many subpopulations of Lophophora williamsii are heavily harvested in the wild throughout the range of the species, some to the point of extirpation. In Mexico, collection is illegal and people are punished for collecting it. Land use change for agriculture is a significant threat, as the land is completely ploughed, thus eliminating all vegetation including L. williamsii and its seed bank. Lophophora williamsii (Lem. ex Salm-Dyck) J.M.Coult.: Globular or somewhat flattened glaucous green or greyish green spineless cactus up to 6 cm tall, 12 cm diameter, with a woolly top; It has a large taproot which may extend over 25 cm below ground level. Common Names include: ENGLISH: Medicine of God, Devil’s root, Divine herb, Dry whiskey, Cactus pudding, Devil's-root, Diabolic-root, Divine cactus, Dry-whiskey, Dumpling cactus, Indian-dope, Mescal-buttons, Turnip cactus, Peyote, Pellote, Mescal Buttons, Whiskey cactus, White-mule BASQUE (Euskara): Peiote BULGARIAN (Български): Пейот CATALAN (Català): Peiot CHINESE (中文): 烏羽玉 CZECH (Čeština): Peyotl DANISH (Dansk): Elefantfodkaktus DUTCH (Nederlands): Peyote, Peyotl ESTONIAN (Eesti): Peioote-uimakaktus FINNISH (Suomi): Myrkkykaktus, Meskaliinikaktus FRENCH (Français): Peyotl, Peyote GALICIAN (Galego): Peyote HEBREW (עברית): פיוטה HUICHOL: Hikuri HUNGARIAN (Magyar): Peyotl, Peyote, Meszkalinkaktusz, Pejot ITALIAN (Italiano): Peyote, Mescal JAPANESE (日本語): ウバタマ, ペヨーテ KOREAN (한국어): 페요테 LATVIAN (Latviešu): Peijots LITHUANIAN (Lietuvių): Kvaitulinis pejotlis MACEDONIAN (Македонски): Пејот NAHUATL (Nāhuatl): Peyōtl NORWEGIAN (Bokmål): Peyote POLISH ( Polski): Jazgrza Williamsa PORTUGUESE (Português): Peiote RUSSIAN (Русский): Пейо́тль, Пейо́т, Лофофора Уильямса SLOVENIAN (Slovenščina): Pejotl SPANISH (Español): Peyote, Mescal SWEDISH (Svenska): Peyote TARAHUMARA: Híkuri wanamé, Híkuli wanamé Description: Lophophora williamsii is a solitary or (rarely) caespitose, spineless cactus, normally unicephalous but becoming polycephalous with age or injury, Stem: Glaucous green, dull bluish or greyish green, very succulent, globular, top-shaped, or somewhat flattened up to 6 cm tall, 12 cm diameter, with a woolly top; The subterranean portion of the stem, which is as wide as the aerial portion, extends several cm below the surface of the ground and transitions smoothly (through a thin hypocotyl) into a large taproot which may extend over 25 cm below ground level. Ribs: (5 when young) 7 to 13 (very rarely 4 or 14 ) broad, rounded, straight, or spiralled, often tuberculate, sometimes irregular and indistinct, with transverse furrows forming more or less regular, polyhedral tubercles; Roots: Napiform, usually 8-11 cm long Areoles: Round spineless, bearing flowers only when young with some bunches of long erect, matted, wooly greyish hairs, up to 1 cm long. Flowers: Solitary, campanulate, 1.5-2.5 cm across when open usually pink (rarely whitish) outer perianth segments and scales ventrally greenish. They emerge from the mass of hairs at umbilicate centre of crown each surrounded by a mass of long hairs. Stigma-lobes 5-7, linear, pink. Blooming season: Flowers sporadically throughout summer. Fruits: Club-shaped, red to pinkish, 2 cm long or shorter which can be very delectable and sweet-tasting when eaten. Seeds: Small and black up to1 mm in diameter, with broad basal hilum, tuberculate-roughened. More... Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Lophophora williamsii group Lophophora fricii With the exception of the smaller and more pale pink flowers, its appearance corresponds to the appearance of Lophophora Fricii. Lophophora williamsii Globular or somewhat flattened glaucous green or greyish green spineless cactus up to 6 cm tall, 12 cm diameter, with a woolly top; It has a large taproot which may extend over 25 cm below ground level. Lophophora williamsii var. caespitosa This name is used to indicate a number of clones of horticultural origin characterized by a more or less accentuated production of axillary shoots that in age grow and form huge cushions.